Brackish tidal marshes contain both freshwater and brackish water species, often in bands corresponding to tidal exposure. Tall rushes and bulrushes often predominate over extensive mid-elevation flats. At the lower elevations, rosette-forming herbs, such as lilaeopsis and tidal arrowhead, may be common on the mudflats. Near the high tide line, there may be a fairly narrow zone of muddy gravel or rock shore sparsely vegetated with low herbs, including some rare species such as Long’s bitter-cress or water-pimpernel. Sweetgale and poison ivy are often present at the upper fringes of the marsh, at or above the tidal reach (Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation & Forestry).
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